The very fact that Henry Tudor became King of England at all is somewhat of a miracle. His claim to the English throne was tenuous at best. His father was Edmund Tudor, a Welshman of Welsh royal lineage, but that was not too important as far as his claim to the English throne went. What was important though was his heritage through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, a descendant of Edward III. This descent from King Edward was through his third son, John of Gaunt. John’s third wife, Katherine Swynford had borne him several children as his mistress before he married her. The children born before the marriage were later legitmized, but barred from the succession. Margaret Beaufort was descended from one of the children born before the marriage of John and Katherine.
Vicovaro – Armed with laser rangefinders, GPS technology and remote control robots, a group of speleologists is completing the first ever mapping of the aqueducts of ancient Rome on archaeology’s “final frontier”.
They abseil down access wells and clamber through crevices to access the 11 aqueducts that supplied Rome, which still run for hundreds of kilometres underground and along stunning viaducts.
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle.
According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine’s conversion to Christianity. Lactantius recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision of the Christian God promising victory if they daubed the sign of the cross on their shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory, certainly attributes Constantine’s success to divine intervention; however, the monument does not display any overtly Christian symbolism.
Michael Servetus, Spanish Miguel Servet (born 1511?, Villanueva or Tudela,
Spain—died Oct. 27, 1553, Champel, Switz.), Spanish physician and theologian whose unorthodox teachings led to his condemnation as a heretic by both Protestants and Roman Catholics and to his execution by Calvinists from Geneva.
While living in Toulouse, France, Servetus studied law and delved into the problem of the Trinity. In February 1530 he accompanied his patron, the Franciscan Juan de Quintana, to the coronation of Emperor Charles V at Bologna. Distressed by papal ostentation and by the emperor’s deference to the worldly pope, he left his patron and visited Lyon, Geneva, and Basel. At Basel and Strasbourg he met with Reformation leaders John Oecolampadius, Martin Bucer, and Kaspar Schwenckfeld.
In the Battle of Myeongnyang, on October 26, 1597, the Joseon Admiral Yi Sun-sin fought the Japanese navy in the Myeongnyang Strait, near Jindo Island, off the southwest point of the Korean peninsula. With 13 ships remaining from Won Gyun’s disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chilchonryang, Admiral Yi held the strait against a fleet of 133 Japanese warships and at least 200 logistical support ships. Many Japanese warships were sunk or disabled during the battle and the Japanese were forced to retreat. Given the disparity in numbers, the battle is regarded as one of Admiral Yi’s most remarkable victories.
In late Summer 1097 the crusaders crossed into Syria1. Between battle, starvation and desertion, their numbers were by now diminished to about half of those who had set out from Constantinople. But now the route was guarded by one of the greatest fortified cities of the Near East: Antioch.
The city was founded in 300 BC, and by Roman times was the 3rd biggest city in the Roman Empire, with a population of 300,000. It was the headquarters of the great Christian apostle St Paul, and was in fact the place where the term ‘Christian’ was invented. Antioch had formidable walls built by Byzantine emperor Justinian in 560 AD. The city fell to the Muslims in 638 AD but was recaptured by the Byzantines in 969. Then in 1085, just 12 years prior to the arrival of the crusaders, it was taken by the Seljuk Turks who now controlled the whole of Anatolia, Syria and Mesopotamia.
Gaiseric, also spelled Genseric (died 477), king of the Vandals and the Alani (428–477) who conquered a large part of Roman Africa and in 455 sacked Rome.
Gaiseric succeeded his brother Gunderic at a time when the Vandals were settled in Baetica (modern Andalusia, Spain). In May 428 Gaiseric transported all his people, purported by him to number 80,000, to Africa. Evidently he was invited to Africa by the governor, Count Bonifacius, who wished to use the military strength of the Vandals in his struggle against the imperial government.
Gaiseric caused great devastation as he moved eastward from the Strait of Gibraltar across Africa. He turned on Bonifacius, defeated his army in 430, and then crushed the joint forces of the Eastern and Western empires that had been sent against him.
In 1009 the fanatic Egyptian Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah gave explicit orders to destroy the churches in Palestine, Egypt and Syria, and above all the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, as recounted by the historian Yahya ibn Sa’id.
The destruction of the sanctuary was virtually complete, including the demolition of the church of Calvary and of what remained of the structure of the Martyrium, and the complete dismantling of the Edicule of the Tomb.
Evel Knievel (October 17, 1938 – November 30, 2007), born Robert Craig Knievel, in the mining city of Butte, Montana on October 17, 1938. “The Richest Hill on Earth” had an attitude of its own. The men worked hard and played harder, their women worried and the common rule was…well, there weren’t really any rules, as long as you worked hard. It didn’t take long for young Bobby to start flourishing as a character in this kind of wide-open, anything goes atmosphere. And it didn’t take long for people to notice.
(Huffington Post Science)
Herod the Great, the king of Judea who ruled not long before the time of Jesus, seems to have eluded historians once again.
In 2007 archaeologists announced they had found the great king’s tomb, a surprisingly modest mausoleum that was part of the Herodium, a massive complex built by Herod on a cone-shaped hill in the desert outside Jerusalem.
But what everyone thought was his final resting place may not be. The modest structure is too small and modest for the ostentatious king; its mediocre construction and design are at odds with Herod’s reputation as a master planner and builder, archaeologists now say.